Timolol is used for the treatment of ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma. Timolol is a prescription approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent. This medication decreases the amount of fluid within the eye. 

Ocular hypertension means the pressure in your eyes is higher than normal. High eye pressure might reason to glaucoma and permanent vision loss in certain individuals if this is left untreated. Nevertheless, particular people can have this condition without mounting any impairment to their vision or eyes. If you are experiencing symptoms like blurred vision, halos, or pain, visit your ophthalmologist right away. 

This condition is caused by a malfunction of the drainage system for the aqueous humor, the fluid whose function is to bathe and nourish the ocular structures. When it does not flow correctly for different reasons, the balance between the fluid produced inside the eye and the fluid released from it is broken. In which it may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. Although anyone can suffer from ocular hypertension, certain groups are more likely to suffer from it and, therefore, to develop glaucoma:

  • The over 60s
  • People with a family history of ocular hypertension or glaucoma
  • The very short- and far-sighted
  • Diabetics
  • Patients with certain ocular trauma or diseases
  • Patients with a narrow ocular angle

 Open-angle glaucoma is an eye disease that gradually steals vision. There are typically no early warning signs or painful symptoms of this condition. It develops slowly and sometimes without noticeable sight loss for many years. Most people who are experiencing open-angle glaucoma feel well and don’t notice a change in their vision at first because the initial loss of vision is of side or peripheral vision. The visual acuity or sharpness of vision is maintained until late in the disease. The signs and symptoms of this may include:

  • Tunnel vision in the advanced stages
  • Patchy blind spots in your side or central vision often in both eyes

Open-angle glaucoma is the most common form of the disease. These reasons stress in the eye to slowly upsurge. This stress harms the optic nerve. It occurs so gradually that you may lose vision before you’re even aware of a problem. 

How does Timolol work?

Timolol works by blocking beta-receptors in the eye which lowers the pressure of the fluid inside the eyeball. The pressure within the eyeball is naturally maintained by a continuous flow of liquid called aqueous humor through the eyeball. Aqueous humor is produced by a part of the eye called the ciliary body and it drains out of the eyeball through channels called the trabecular meshwork. If the outflow of aqueous humor is blocked, the aqueous humor builds up inside the eye. It increases as well as the pressure within the eyeball. This pressure needs to be reduced, as otherwise it can damage the optic nerve and impair vision.

This medication blocks beta-receptors that are found on the ciliary body. This lessens the amount of aqueous humor that is secreted into the eyeball by the ciliary body. Timolol also blocks beta-receptors found on the blood vessels that supply the ciliary body. This reason constricts the blood vessels and decreases the quantity of watery fluid that filters out of the blood vessels to form aqueous humor.

How to use Timolol?

Wash your hands first to apply eye drops. Do not touch the dropper tip or let it touch your eye or any other surface to avoid contamination. Remove contact lenses, if you are wearing them before using eye drops. Before replacing your contact lenses, wait at least 15 minutes. 

Apply gentle pressure for 1-2 minutes before opening your eyes. Try not to blink or rub your eye. Repeat these steps for your other eye if so directed. If you are having medication other than this, wait at least 5 minutes before applying it. Use eye drops before eye ointments to let the drops to enter the eye. Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. Remember to use it at the same time each day. It is important to continue using Timolol even if you feel well. If your condition does not improve or gets worse, call your doctor. 

What are the side effects of Timolol?

Common side effects:

  • Nervousness 
  • Anxiety
  • Tired feeling
  • Sleep problems or insomnia
  • Difficulty having an orgasm impotence
  • Decreased sex drive 

Call your doctor right away if you have these side effects:

  • A cold feeling in your hands and feet
  • Drooping eyelids
  • Vision problems 
  • Muscle weakness 
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swelling
  • Rapid gain weight
  • A light-headed feeling like you might pass out
  • Slow or uneven heartbeats
  • New or worsening chest pain 

Get emergency medical help if your signs of an allergic reaction such as:

  • Trouble breathing 
  • Hives
  • Swelling of your lips, face, tongue, or throat 

Warnings and Precautions 

  • This eye drop may cause your vision to blur temporarily. Do not drive or operate machinery until you know how this affects you. 
  • This medicine is for use in the eye and must not be taken by mouth. 
  • While using this medicine you should have regular eye examinations.
  • Use this with caution in people with an artificial lens in the eye, no lens in the eye, a history of inflammation of the middle layer of the eyeball, those with decreased kidney or liver function, and people with severe or poorly controlled asthma. 
  • This may cause the skin around the treated eye to darken. The risk of this can be reduced by wiping away any excess solution on the skin around the eye after putting the eye drops into the eye.
  • This is not recommended for use in children and adolescents under 18 years of age. 
  • If you are a pregnant or breastfeeding women, consult your doctor first before using this prescription.
  • This medicine should not be used if you are allergic to any of its ingredients. Please inform your doctor if you have previously experienced such an allergy. Stop using this medicine and inform your doctor right away if you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction.